In WiQQi, criteria are the format with which we bundle the experience of many. They are the key to ready-to-eat knowledge and a core element of development. To avoid misunderstandings, we emphasize that the concept of experience cannot be equated with competence. WiQQi cannot and does not want to bundle or influence people's competence.
Criteria are measurable or testable descriptive characteristics. They are used in WiQQi to make the knowledge and experience of many "ready to eat", i.e. to be applied ad hoc in a situation.
In WiQQi, criteria have the following tasks:
- Description: Criteria help to describe problems, objectives, solutions and resources on a case-by-case basis.
- Bundling: Criteria bundle the knowledge and experience of many.
- Networking: Criteria network needs (i.e. problems, objeckt and resources) with solutions.
- Reflection: Criteria support reflection in problem analysis, in the selection of a solution and in the evaluation of objective achievement.
- Justification: Criteria support the justification of decisions by disclosing the decision-making aspects of a situation.
A criterion is a characteristic (e.g. weight/color) that can be used to differentiate between different solutions, problems or objekctives. A prerequisite for this is the description of the characteristics of a characteristic (e.g. 100g, 1kg, 10kg/red, green, blue). One criterion and its characteristics are always descriptive and not judging.
Every judgement a decision is based on, is context-sensitive. The expression "3kg" has a completely different meaning for a bass - depending on whether you are talking about a fish or a guitar. The meaning of the color can also differ - especially if there is a color defect.
In WiQQi, criteria have the following meaning:
- Description of needs: The specification of criteria allows the need to be described more precisely in the individual case. This description includes the Assessment of relevance: is a criterion relevant or not?
- Rating of relevance: Why is a criterion relevant or not?
- Expression of the criterion: Does the expression have to assume a certain value, exceed or fall below it or have a tendency?
- Reason for the expression of a criterion: Why exactly does the criterion have to accept this expression?
- Description of solutions: The naming of criteria and their characteristics can describe solutions in detail? WiQQi starts from the dimensions of the individual case and limits the documentation of solutions to what is sufficient or necessary for the individual case. Other versions of a solution can be added in further individual cases.
- Comparison of solution and requirement: How does a solution meet needs?
- A perfect fit: a problem is solved and/or a line is reached without changing the resources used
- Resources are released: A solution helps resources to be mined or otherwise used.
- Additional resources are required: A solution helps resources to be built up or otherwise withdrawn.
- Ready-to-eat knowledge: Criteria can combine experience and knowledge in a form that can be used in a situation. We call this "ready-to-eat knowledge":
- Needs assessment: Requirements from past cases can be applied to new cases using the criteria.
- Solution selection: Solutions tailored to requirements can be filtered out of the bulk of the solutions based on criteria. This reduces the research effort.
- Reasoned decision: Decisions can be justified by comparing needs and solutions. Effects on resources can be thought ahead and accompanying measures can be initiated.
Criteria arise from experience in individual cases. Prospectively, thinking ahead, ask about the reasons and conditions that are necessary or sufficient to solve a problem. The results are conceptual, abstract criteria. The retrospective, reflective look leads to concrete criteria.
Criteria are derived from the questions that relate to individual needs:
- Why exactly do I rate a problem as good or badly solved?
- Why exactly do I rate a goal as good or bad?
- Why exactly do I rate a solution as good or bad?
- Which resources are relevant for the application of a solution?
Criteria influence decisions structurally by opening an assessment dimension (but without specifying the direction of the decision).
Criteria combine experience. They offer aspects for which a problem can be analyzed, a solution selected and the achievement of goals evaluated. In addition, they offer opportunities for impartial evaluation and thus initiate a continuous improvement process.
The questions for reflection and the justification based on pre-defined criteria are:
- Relevance: Which criteria are relevant in the individual need situation?
- Rating: How can the individual rating be divided into an all-party, i.e. measurable or verifiable description transferred?
If we derive criteria from the individual case, we will lose the overview. How exactly we restore the overview is one of the research questions associated with the development of WiQQi. We have found that criteria repeat themselves. This is the basis for the approach of clustering criteria.
We have to weigh up:
- Precision: How exactly do criteria have to be described in order to achieve useful results?
- Manageability: How broad can criteria be so that we don't lose track?
In the problem analysis, the criteria are automatically and dynamically made available by the WiQQi database. This results in a supportive assessment path:
- Extended access: WiQQi can display criteria that are linked to the entered problem and/or goal.
- Reduced access: WiQQi can represent the criteria that are linked to both the problem entered and the target.
- Solution-related access: Additional or further restrictive criteria can be used that are critical to the success of the use of certain solutions.
This enables the information required for finding a solution to be collected and specified in a targeted manner. Second visits and disappointments can be reduced.
Criteria emerge from practice and repeat themselves. We expect a finite, manageable number of meta-indicators that can be traced back to the individual in terms of motor skills, cognition and sensory skills. They are reflected in frequently occurring, everyday practical actions and thus in particular in the areas of nutrition, exercise and communication/interaction.
Some goals - but also supposed solutions - require more than can be applied by the user. We met the criterion of manual strength in various individual cases:
- Unlock the lock or door
- Trigger nursing call
- Open the cucumber jar
- Open cans
A first attempt, the experience from different cases leads to the following structure and everyday practical test questions, which can be used both in resource-related needs assessment and to describe a solution. The following questions about the needs assessment also apply to the description of solutions: "All people who can open a water bottle can (in terms of manual strength!) Also use the solution".
- Can the required force be applied?
- Can water bottles be opened?
- Can cucumber jars be opened?
- Can the door lock be unlocked?
- Can clothes pegs be pressed together?
- Can the light switch be operated?
- Can the required force be transferred sufficiently?
- Can a water bottle be opened with a handle?
- Can a mixed pickles jar be opened with a handle?
- Do pain prevent the necessary force from being applied?
- Pain occurs when using force.
- Pain occurs when moving.
- Pain occurs in certain positions.
On the one hand, across the various individual cases, it can be seen that individual statements are mentioned several times. On the other hand, several criteria are repeatedly effective. The criterion of manual strength is repeatedly linked to the criterion of fine motor skills (unlocking the door, triggering a care call, opening the cucumber jar). This could be used to map items at different levels:
- to eat and drink
- Can a water bottle be opened?
- Due to mobility?
- Caused by fine and gross motor skills?
- Due to hand strength?
- Which of the following activities can be carried out:
- Open the water tab
- Open the preserving jar
- Unlock the door lock
- Squeeze clothespins
- Operate the light switch
The topic of energy supply is important for various solutions (care call, night light, motorized lock, motorized can and glass opener). It leads to the following topics:
- Power supply failure: What happens if the power fails?
- Switching on and off: Does a solution have to be switched on and off or brought from standby?
- Reactivation: Do batteries need to be procured, charged or replaced? Are they available?
- Explosion hazard: Are there additional risks or fears, for example due to a battery fire?
From our experience, the topic of energy supply could be structured as follows:
- power supply
- Kinetic energy
- electrical power
- Mains operation
- Plug type (Schuko, Euro, ...)
- Operating voltage (230V, 12V, 9V, 5V)
- Mains operation
- Energy harvesting
- Solar cells
- Piezo elements
- Induction voltage through movement
- Sustainability (rechargeable, disposable)
- Type (9V block, AA, AAA, CR2032, ...)
The question of what level of detail is necessary concerns the central research question. WiQQi should help to simplify research - but not to make it more complex.
Criteria are constructed either as a test or as a measurement. The goal is a transparent and understandable assessment. The evaluation is therefore carried out on the one hand with the test result "Yes", "Conditional" or "No" and on the other hand with the measurement result, which consists of numerical value and measurement variable. In this way, conclusions can be drawn between general results and the individual case.
Three perspectives will be presented separately in the future:
- Manufacturer or provider of a solution
- All WiQQi users
- My ratings
In this way, misunderstandings and misuse of solutions as well as innovations should be made visible and debatable.
The various data levels that result from test questions and measurements must be taken into account in the presentation. WiQQi uses the descriptive representation with percentiles to give a quick overview of the data. Dichotomous approaches ("Like" or "Dislike") do not do justice to the complexity of care, which is why the triad Yes-Conditional-No is used. Each option can also be commented on. Average values (asterisk rating) would provide supposed clarity. That is why we use percentiles in WiQQi to represent the distribution.
- Extreme values: The range of the data is shown with the minimum and maximum.
- Focus: By displaying the 80% of the values that lie between the 10% and 90% percentile, distorting effects of the extreme values can be compensated.
- Median: The median creates clarity about the existing, symmetrical, left or right skewed distributions.
- Sample size: The number of data included in the survey is also shown in order to make the scope of the data more transparent.
The question remains open as to how far or at what point in time different test questions can be combined on a scale and thus represent a measuring instrument.
If individual test questions or measurement results are merged into higher-level clusters and are no longer implemented as an individual survey, the question arises: where to with the data?
- We currently assume that subordinate data can be bundled (we have not yet discussed the mathematical model for this). They can also be placed visually over the data of the cluster. This makes it possible to check whether the results are congruent or whether they have been postponed.
- The bundling should be reversible. If necessary, the clusters should be able to be dissolved again in order to generate individual statements.